Body of the paper
Style: The paper should be written clearly and concisely. The style of writing should conform to acceptable English usage. Slang, jargon, unauthorized abbreviations, abbreviated phrasings and the like, should be avoided. In general, the impersonal form should be used.
Layout: Manuscripts should be generally organized as follows: Title page, Summary (with keywords), Introduction, Methodology, Results and Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgement, References. However, exceptions are allowed depending on the subject area. Pages should be numbered consecutively (Numbering format: Bottom/ right side, Style: Page 1 of 15). The MS should be arranged in the following order.
Title page should include the title of the paper, name/s (do not use any titles Eg. Dr., Prof. or degrees Eg. B Sc, Ph D etc. with the author’s name/s), affiliation/s of all author/s and also the suggested category of the submission. Clearly indicate name of the Corresponding Author, to handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing, publication and also post-publication and provide full mail address, e-mail address, telephone, and fax numbers of corresponding author. If any author has no institutional affiliation, it is required to provide his/her present mailing address of the residence. The title should be concise and informative and should not contain abbreviations. It should clearly reflect the content of the article and must not exceed 150 characters. Running title should be a ‘shortened title’ that could be printed at the top of every other page of the article and must be limited to a maximum of 50 characters.
Summary should not be more than 300 words. It should not contain any references and should be able to stand on its own. It should outline objectives and methodology together with important results and conclusions. A Review/ Resource article also should carry a summary of not more than 300 words. Include a maximum of five keywords listed in order of importance.
Page 3 and onwards:
Introduction should state the reason/s (i.e. the objective/s) for performing the work with brief reference to relevant previous work.
Methodology/ Research Procedures:
New methods may be described in detail with an indication of their limitations. Established methods can be mentioned with appropriate references. Sufficient detail should be included to allow direct repetition of the work by others. Methods of statistical analyses should be mentioned where applicable.
Results should be concisely and logically presented. Only the data essential for the conclusions emerging from the study should be included. Repetition of the same results in figures, tables or text should be avoided.
Long, rambling discussions should be avoided. The discussion should deal with the interpretation of results without repeating information already presented in results. To avoid this, Results and Discussion sections could be combined and may contain sub-headings. It should logically relate new findings to earlier ones.
The conclusion should be a brief statement highlighting the outcome of the study. Unqualified statements and conclusions not completely supported by data should be avoided. All hypotheses should be clearly identified as such.
Should be brief and made for specific scientific and technical assistance only and not for routine help in preparing manuscripts. If a significant part of the research was performed in an institution other than in those indicated by the authors’ affiliations given in the title page, this fact should be acknowledged. Financial and material support should also be mentioned.
References within the text - References to the literature must be indicated in the text and tables as per the American Phycological Association (APA), by the author’s name and year, in parenthesis (i.e. Mnnn, 1997). Citation to work by more than two authors should be abbreviated with the use of et al. (i.e. Sknnng et al., 1997). Multiple works by the same first author in the same year should be coded by letters, (i.e. Zwddtthj, 1991a, b, & c). Multiple citations should be listed in chronological order and separated by a semi-colon, (i.e. Zmmir et al., 1986; Abcd et al., 1997). Reference to unpublished work, work in preparation or work under review should be cited in italics with the author’s initials and surname given (i.e. J. W. Rwht, 2017, unpublished data) and such works should not be included in the Reference section. Personal communications may be mentioned in the text in italics with the surname and the date of communication (i.e. Yoohdg P.R., Personal communication, 2 June 2017).
List of References - Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references. All citations mentioned in the text, tables or figures must be listed in the reference list. The list of references should be arranged in alphabetical order and numbered. All the initials of the author must be given after the surname and the year of publication should be followed in parentheses. This should be followed by the full title of the referred publication.
When journal articles are listed, the journal name should be given in full and it should be indicated in italics and followed by the volume number, issue number in parentheses and then the inclusive pages. References should only be cited as ‘in press’ if the paper has been accepted for publication.
Doutin G., Karper X.L., Fegr N.K., Hoaski D. & Schule M.R. (2005). Title of the article. Journal of Education, 90(3): 45-67.
Where there are several works by the same author(s) and published in the same year they should be differentiated by adding a lower-case letter after the year.
Douxtin G. & Karlper X.L. (1998a). Title of the article. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 79(01): 199-221.
Douxtin G. & Karlper X.L. (1998b). Title of the article. Journal of Toxocology, 45(11): 19-25.
When books are listed, the order should be: author(s), year, book title, volume number, edition, pagination/ inclusive pages, publisher and place of publication. The book title should be indicated in italics.
Burnham K.P. & Anderson D.R. (2002). Title of the Book (vol. 1), 2nd edition, pp. 488. Springer Science and Business Media, Inc., New York, USA.
When chapter/ section of a book is listed, the order should be: author(s) of section, year, title of the section in Italics, title of the book, edition, Editor/s of the book in parenthesis, inclusive pages, publisher and place of publication.
Hinrichsen R.A. & Holmes E.E. (2009). Title of the section in Italics. Title of the book in Italics (eds. R.S. Pgrcentl, C. Sggtrreedv & S. Ryrn), pp. 145–166. CRC/ Chapman Hall, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
Examples of correct forms of arranging of other references are given below.
Conference/ Symposium papers:
Wherer D. (2002). Title of the conference/ symposium paper. Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference of the Society of CSehytre and Drtesmjiary (eds. A. Sondreson, C. JuGunn & T. Phelear), Vol 2, Auckland, New Zealand, 8-11 December. IST Institute of Technology, New Zealand, pp. 711-720.
Agency publications/ reports:
U.S. Census Bureau (2007). World Population: 1900- 2000. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington DC, USA.
Web- based publications:
Department of Health (2008). Title of the publication: Progress and Next Step. (pdf). Division of Health, London, UK. Available at http://www.dh.gov.an/en/Publications/ Policy/ BGTDH _ 08 5307, Accessed on 9 June 2008.
Rjdserson L.J. (2003). Title of the dissertation. PhD thesis, University of Cfrtesut, Frtedst, UK.
Notrord K.G. (2012). Forderser 4.3: Software for dsretsutyin icit deart,liftrture–dretpture. Available at http://www. Bgtio.ac.ik/drtsity , Accessed 15 March 2009.
Tables - should be clear and intelligible without reference to the text, and should not repeat data available elsewhere in the paper. They should be typed using times new roman font size 12 line spacing 1.5 on A4 size paper and numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and attached at the end of the paper. If a table must be continued, a second sheet should be used and all the headings repeated. The number of columns or rows in each table should be minimized. Each table should have a title, which makes its general meaning clear without reference to the text. All table columns should have explanatory headings. Units of measurement, if any, should be indicated in parentheses in the heading of each column. Vertical lines should not be used and horizontal lines should be used only in the heading and at the bottom of the table. Foot-notes to tables should be placed directly below the table and should be indicated by superscript lower case italic letters (a, b, c, etc.). The preferred position of tables should be indicated in the manuscript.
Figures (Illustrations) - should be kept to a minimum. All illustrations are considered as figures, and each graph, drawing or photograph should be numbered in sequence with Arabic numerals. Any lettering to appear on the illustrations should be of a suitable size for reproduction and should be indicated on a photocopy of the illustration. Scanned figures should be of high quality (300 dpi), to fit the proportions of the printed page. Each figure should carry a legend that the general meaning of the figure can be understood without reference to the text. Figure legends should be typed with 1.5 spacing on a separate sheet and, along with the Figures, placed at the end of the paper. Where magnifications are used, they should be stated. The approximate position for each figure should be indicated in the manuscript. Colour illustrations are considered only very exceptionally. Only non-mounted high quality glossy photographs are acceptable. Magnification should be indicated with a scale line on the photograph.
General formatting and style points
- Nomenclature- Scientific names of plants and animals should be printed in italics. In the first citation, genus, species and authority must be given. e.g. Borassus flabellifer Linn. In later citations, the generic name may be abbreviated. e.g. B. flabellifer L.
- Abbreviations and symbols: In general, terms should not be abbreviated unless they are used repeatedly and/ or the abbreviation is very common and helpful to the reader. Initially use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation only but never use in the abstract..
- Units of measurement: Measurements should be given in SI or SI-derived units as indicated below.
Length- km, m, mm, µm, nm etc.; Area- km2 , m2 , etc.; Capacity- kL, L, mL, µL etc.; Volume- km3 , m3, cm3 etc.; Mass- kg, g, mg, µg etc.; Time- year(s), month(s), wk(s), d(s), h, min, s.; Concentration- M, mM, N, %, g/L, mg/L, ppm etc.; Temperature- °C.
- Formulae and equations- Equations should be typewritten and quadruple spaced. They should be started on the left margin and the number placed in parentheses to the right of the equation. Visit the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) website at http://www.bipm.fr for more information.
- Numbers: numbers under 10 are spelt out, except for: measurements with a unit (eg. 4 mmol/l); age (eg. 7 days old), or lists with other numbers (eg. 11 cattle, 9 chicks, 4 tanks).
HMRJ Policy of manuscript acceptance
All submissions should be in English. If the manuscript (re-submission 1) conforms to the guidelines specified, the date received will be the date the manuscript reaches the Editorial Office. Manuscripts are accepted on the understanding that they will be reviewed at least by two independent reviewers prior to acceptance and they have not been submitted for publication elsewhere. The decision of the Editorial Board on publication is final. Papers may be subject to editorial revision in order to improve presentation. When revision of a manuscript has been requested, the revised manuscript should be submitted within a month. Otherwise, the manuscript will be processed as one withdrawn from submission. The accepted date will be the day when the Editorial Board has judged it to be publishable after the reviewing process. A complimentary copy of the Journal will be supplied to each of the authors and ten reprints of the manuscript to the corresponding author.