Our study suggests that T16189C polymorphism could be associated with sporadic breast cancer in the Sri Lankan Tamil population. This observation needs to be confirmed in a larger cohort of patients before being recommended as a predictive marker for sporadic breast cancer in this ethnic group.
Saffron is the world’s second most costly spice, with numerous advantages of culinary, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and medical fields. There is an inadequate awareness of how Crocus sativus L. (Family Iridaceae) which produces the spice saffron from the filaments that grow inside the flower, can possibly treat cancer. Since, cancers are regarded as a devastating disease in today’s world, anticancer and antioxidant properties of secondary metabolites available in saffron will be highly invaluable. The present review focuses on investigating on the role of crocin, crocetin and safranal in cancer treatments, which are the main secondary metabolites of C. sativus, and evaluating the various methods of extracting, isolating and analysing them. The review conducted using subjective indexed journal articles that were published over the past ten years. Out of the available data, it found that crocin would be quite beneficial in healing cancer without revealing any adverse effects. Crocin showed immense potential in curing a wide range of cancer types, mainly prostate and lung cancers, by eliminating cancer cells through apoptosis and inhibiting tumour invasion. There were a limited number of researches conducted using crocetin and safranal. However, they will approve for cancer treatments shortly. Crocetin was widely employed as a chemo-preventive and anti-inflammatory medication for pancreatic and breast cancer treatments. It has recently been utilized only for treatments of few types of cancers. Only one publication recorded in the recent ten years, as the usage of safranal in cancer treatment, which was against leukaemia. Moreover, secondary metabolite analysis techniques including spectrophotometry and chromatography utilized effectively, whereas predominantly improved extraction techniques including ultrasound-assisted extraction, emulsion liquid membrane, high hydrostatic pressure extraction. The analysis affirmed that, microwave-assisted extraction (80±1%) followed by low-pressure liquid chromatography (99.04±0.01%) showed optimum recovery of crocin. Whereas for safranal, microwave-assisted extraction (15.9±0.1%) and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry preferred methods. The analysed data will be useful for future studies that focus on the analysis of saffron secondary metabolites and potentiality in cancer treatments to provide the researchers with a wide range of alternatives for carrying out the processes of curing cancers.
Rauvolfia serpentina (family Apocynaceae) is a perennial undershrub and threatened plant species in Sri Lanka which is considered a therapeutically important traditional medicinal plant. Due to low seed germination and slow natural propagation, micropropagation techniques would be useful to produce healthy plant material and contribute to the ex situ conservation of R. serpentina. The objective of the study was to identify the optimisation of in vitro callus induction protocol using leaf disc explants of R. serpentina. Surface sterilization of explants were compared using varied concentrations of Clorox solution at different time intervals and 70% ethanol at fixed time period. Sterilised explants were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal nutrient medium supplemented with different concentration combinations of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) plant growth regulators. The cultures were incubated at 25 ± 1 °C. The survival percentage of the explants were determined after two weeks of sterilisation and the mass of callus was measured after six weeks of incubation. A 7.5% Clorox solution with a five minutes interval was found to be the optimum setting for the surface sterilisation of leaf discs and 67% of the explants survived after the sterilisation process. Rapid callus growth (2.5 ± 0.1 g) was observed in MS medium supplemented with 0.04 mg/l NAA and 2.0 mg/l BAP. Calli obtained could be used for mass propagation of R. serpentina, through indirect organogenesis.
Loss of wetland habitats and their associated biological communities
is a major environmental concern. Quality assessment indices
(QAIs) and indices of biological integrity (IBIs) are useful for
assessing the responses of taxa to wetland habitat quality and land
use in the surrounding landscape. Mosses and vascular plants have
been shown to be reliable indicators of wetland habitat delineation
and environmental quality. Knowledge of the best ecological
predictors of the quality of wetland moss and vascular plant communities
may determine if similar management practices would
simultaneously enhance both populations. We used Akaike’s Information
Criterion to identify models predicting a moss quality
assessment index (MQAI) and a vascular plant index of biological
integrity based on floristic quality (VIBI-FQ) from 27 emergent
and 13 forested wetlands in Ohio, USA. The set of predictors included
the six metrics from a wetlands disturbance index (ORAM)
and two landscape development intensity indices (LDIs). The best
single predictor of MQAI and one of the predictors of VIBI-FQ
was an ORAM metric that assesses habitat alteration and disturbance
within the wetland, such as mowing, grazing, and agricultural
practices. However, the best single predictor of VIBI-FQ was
an ORAM metric that assessed wetland vascular plant communities,
interspersion, and microtopography. LDIs better predicted
MQAI than VIBI-FQ, suggesting that mosses may either respond
more rapidly to, or recover more slowly from, anthropogenic disturbance
in the surrounding landscape than vascular plants. These
results supported previous predictive studies on amphibian indices
and metrics and a separate vegetation index, indicating that similar
wetland management practices may enhance three vastly different
wetland biological communities (amphibians, vascular plants, and
mosses). This may lead to more efficient use of available resources
by wetland management agencies.
Gyrinops is a genus of eight species belongs to family Thymelaeaceae. They are native to
South East Asia and the Indian subcontinent. The species Gyrinops walla is closely related to
Aquilaria, which may produce a resinous substance called agarwood. Agarwood has been
well recognized as a primary raw material in perfumery and therapeutic industries worldwide.
G. walla has been listed as a potentially threatened species by the Convention on International
Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) due to overexploitation of
natural population. Therefore, developing in vitro micropropagation techniques may be an
applicable unravelment to implement healthy planting material to produce stocks for
commercial scale plantations.
Optimized surface sterilization protocol was used to eliminate microbial contaminations.
Carbendazim, Clorox® and ethanol were used as sterilizing agents. Mature seeds were used to
obtain in vitro seedlings. Parts from in vitro seedlings and young tender leaves from natural
plants were used as explants for callus initiation. Sterilized explants were inoculated on
growth regulator free Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. After two weeks, pathogen free
explants were transferred to MS medium supplemented with different combinations of
benzylaminopurine (BA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Survival rate of explants, rate of
callus induction and nature of calli were observed after three weeks of incubation.
Surface sterilization of explants with, 0.2% Carbendazim for 10 minutes, 10% Clorox® for
10 minutes and 70% ethanol for 30 seconds each followed by three successive washings in
sterile distilled water found to be the best surface sterilization method. MS medium
supplemented with a combination of 1.0 mg/L BA and 3.0 mg/L NAA found to be ideal for
callus induction from seedlings and leaf disc explants. Explants obtained from in vitro
seedling parts showed 90% survival, while leaf disc explant showed less (40%) survival rate.
Callus initiation was observed within three weeks from seedling parts, however leaf disc
explants took longer period (seven weeks). Calli obtained from both explant types were
yellowish in colour, compact in nature and observed along the mid rib of leaves. From the
results obtained it could be suggested that callus induction via in vitro seedlings are more
feasible to obtain healthy and high quality calli within a short period of time. Calli obtained
could either be used for mass propagation, through indirect organogenesis or for the
establishment of plant cell culture to secondary metabolite synthesis.
Gyrinops walla gaertn. (Thymalaeaceae) is a well-known plant species out of eight members of genus Gyrinops which is used for the extraction of agarwood resin. Due to the deep fragrance of the resin produced by G. walla, the species has great demand in Sri Lanka as well as worldwide. Overexploitation diminishes the natural population. Illegal felling decreases the natural population before maturity. As there is a high demand for the plant species in establishing plantations, micropropagation may be a feasible alternative to provide healthy planting material in commercial scale. Different surface sterilization procedures for mature seeds were carried out to eliminate microbial contaminations, using carbendazim, Clorox® and ethanol. Optimum concentrations of each solution and the duration of the surface sterilization were determined. In vitro seed germination method was studied to obtain G. walla seedlings with minimal microbial contaminations. Effect of different concentrations of plant growth regulators – gibberellic acid (GA3), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (Kin) and their interactive effects on in vitro seed germination and seedling development were studied. When seedlings were established cotyledonary parts, shoot tips, axillary buds and leaves were cultured in MS basal medium supplemented with different growth regulators for multiple shoot and callus induction. Completely randomized design was used in all experiments and data obtained were analysed using ANOVA. Carbendazim 0.2%, Clorox® 10% and ethanol 70% solutions found to be optimum for surface sterilization of seeds. Scarification enhanced the in vitro seed germination. MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L GA3, 2.5 mg/L IAA and 2.0 mg/L kin found to be ideal for in vitro seed germination. Callus initiation was observed in MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L kin and 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D. from the results obtained, it would be suggested that callus induction is possible through cotyledonary leaves and shoot tips obtain from in vitro seedlings.